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Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

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Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language
Introduction
One of the long-established misconceptions about the lexicon is that it is neatly and rigidly divided into semantically related sets of words. In contrast, we claim that word meanings do not have clear boundaries.1 In this paper we will give proof of the fuzziness of meaning through an analysis of the semantic field of MOVEMENT in the English language. We will show that many MOVEMENT verbs belong not only to several subdomains within the field of MOVEMENT, but also to various semantic domains through metaphorical extension.
Before dealing with the double or even triple membership of MOVEMENT verbs, let us first present the model on which our description of the lexicon is based, the Functional-Lexematic Model (Martнn Mingorance, 1984, 1985a,b; 1987a,b,c; 1990a,b).
1. The Functional-Lexematic Model
The FLM integrates Coseriu’s Lexematics (1977), Dik’s Functional Grammar (1997a) and some fundamental principles of cognitive linguistics. Following Faber and Mairal (1998: 4-5), the two main objectives of this model are, on the one hand, the construction of the linguistic architecture of the lexicon of a language, and on the other hand, the representation of knowledge based on the linguistic coding of dictionary entries.
The FLM establishes three axes of analysis: the paradigmatic, syntagmatic and cognitive axes. The elaboration of the paradigmatic axis entails the structuring of the lexicon in semantic domains —each corresponding to a basic area of meaning,2 and the organization of lexical domains into hierarchically constructed subdomains elaborated on the basis of shared meaning components A subdomain is “a subdivision of semantic space derived from the factorisation of the meaning definition of its members”3 (Faber and Mairal 1998: 6). Word definitions are built according to Dik’s method of Stepwise Lexical Decomposition. This means that the definition structure of each lexeme consists of the nuclear word —the archilexeme— and a series of semantic features which mark its distance from the preceding members of the subdomain.
Following Faber and Mairal (1999), the domain of MOVEMENT is organised into four subdomains. The first subdomain describes generic movement, while the other subdomains subsume lexemes which denote movement in a number of contexts: liquid, atmosphere and land. Cutting across this major configuration of the domain, the parameters of manner and direction introduce further divisions within each subdomain.4 For instance, these parameters traverse the following subdomains within the subdomain lexicalizing generic movement:
1. Direction:
To move towards a place/person/thing
To move back
To move up
To move down
2. Manner:
To move quickly
To move slowly
To move smoothly
To move in a circular manner
As an example of a subdomain structured paradigmatically, we have selected the subdomain To move down:
fall: to move down from a high position/the sky/a tree.
plunge: to fall suddenly a long way from a high position.
plummet: to fall very quickly from a high position.
come down: to fall (rain/snow) heavily.
descend: to move down a slope/stairs (fml).
The verbs indented to the right (plunge, plummet, come down) are defined in terms of the verb immediate above them (fall), which thus becomes their definiens. They are basically differentiated from one another in terms of manner. The other archilexeme of this subdomain is descend.
The construction of the syntagmatic axis implies the analysis of the complementation patterns of each lexeme using predicate frames as integrated formulae.
The following types of information are captured in predicate frames:
(i) the form of the predicate
(ii) the syntactic category to which it belongs
(iii) its quantitative valency, i.e. the number of arguments that the predicate requires
(iv) its qualitative valency, i.e. the semantic functions of the arguments and the pertinent selection restrictions
(v) the meaning definition
Predicate frames describe a state of affairs and specify the relationship between the predicate arguments (represented by the variable x). Each argument is characterized by a selection restriction —described in terms of binary semantic features— and fulfills a semantic function (Agent, Experiencer, Goal, Recipient, etc.).
Consider the predicate frame of the verb bow:
[ (x1: prototyp. human)Ag (x2: prototyp. part of the body)Go ]Action
DEF = to bend your head and upper body as a greeting or as a sign of respect.
This frame describes an Action and specifies the relationship between a human argument, performing the function of Agent, and an argument fulfilling the function of Goal and semantically marked as part of the body (head).
The elaboration of the cognitive axis entails the formulation of the predicate conceptual schemata, which are cognitive constructs encoding semantic, syntactic and pragmatic information and representing our knowledge about the lexical unit in question. Conceptual schemata are codified at three levels: lexeme, subdomain and domain.
2. Polysemy of MOVEMENT verbs
Many MOVEMENT verbs fall within several subdomains. This double/multiple membership may be accounted for on the following grounds:
a) The meaning component focalised
b) The genus of the lexeme
c) The metaphorical extension of the verb
Let us examine each of these factors.
2.1. Focalization of a meaning component
We have used Dik’s (1997a) pragmatic functions of Focus and Topic to account for some instances of polysemy in the semantic field of MOVEMENT. These functions specify the information status of the constituents of the predicate within the communicative setting in which they occur, and they are assigned to the constituents after the assigning of semantic and syntactic functions. The Topic is the entity about which the predication predicates something in the setting in question, whereas the Focus refers to the most relevant information in the setting:
(1) As for Mary (Focus), I don’t care for her (Topic).
The application of such functions to the paradigmatic description of the lexicon is based on the organization of the lexicon at three levels: domain, subdomain and lexeme. In consonance with this idea, we may formulate various levels of focalization:
Level of focalization 1: Domain
Level of focalization 2: Subdomain
Levels of focalization 3, 4, ... : Lexeme
A domain stands for the level of focalization number 1. It performs the function of Focus in that it represents one of the basic areas of meaning.
A subdomain represents the level of focalization number 2 in that it focuses on an area of meaning within a domain.
The following levels of focalization are formulated at lexeme-level. This means that the lexemes of a subdomain represent different levels of focalization based on the meaning hierarchies within the subdomain.
What is most relevant is that what is Focus on a level becomes Topic on the level below. Then a domain, which performs the function of Focus on the level of focalization number 1, becomes topic at subdomain-level in that it presents the given information, since all the subdomains of MOVEMENT lexicalize the concept of movement. Therefore, the archilexeme of the lexical field, move, which performs the function of Focus at domain-level in that it codifies the nuclear meaning of the domain, becomes Topic at subdomain-level, since it is the definiens of the archilexeme of each subdomain.
Similarly, a subdomain, which acts as Focus on the level of focalization number 2, becomes Topic at lexeme-level, since all the lexemes in the subdomain share the nuclear information formalised by the subdomain. Then, as we move down in the semantic hierarchy which characterizes the internal structure of each subdomain, what is Focus in the meaning definition of the archilexeme (level of focalization number 3) becomes Topic in the meaning definition of its hyponyms (level of focalization number 4). For example, if we take the subdomain analysed above, To move down, the definiens “to move down” acts as Focus in the definition of fall (the archilexeme), and as Topic in the definition of plunge, plummet and come down, the function of Focus being performed by the semantic parameters of manner and place in that they individuate the members of the subdomain.
Let us now consider the functions of Topic and Focus in the case of lexemes belonging to several subdomains. Here the function of Focus applies to a particular meaning component, which thus becomes especially relevant. The verbs whizz and zoom involve quick movement, thus belonging to the subdomain To move quickly. But they can also denote movement through the air:
(2) The bullets whizzed past.
Then, these verbs belong to the subdomain To move quickly or To move through the air depending on which parameter is highlighted, whether manner or medium.
Similarly, the verbs circle and whirl refer to circular movement in the air. If the manner component is focalized, then the verbs fall in the subdomain To move in a circular manner. If the focus is on the medium, then the verbs belong to the subdomain To move through the air.
The table below shows the double membership of these verbs.

VERB
FOCUS
DIMENSION
MEANING
whizz
zoom
circle
whirl
Manner
To move quickly
To move in a circular manner
To move (an engine/device) very quickly with a loud whistling noise
To move (a vehicle/an aircraft) very quickly with a loud buzzing/humming noise
To move in a circular manner in the air
To turn round in the air very quickly
whizz
zoom
circle
whirl
Medium
To move through the air
To move very quickly through the air with a loud whistling noise
To move very quickly through the air with a loud noise
To fly around in circles
To move very quickly in a circular manner through the air2.2. Genus of the lexeme
Many verbs describe generic movement. Verb membership is then determined by the semantic parameter of medium or direction, or by the parameter specifying the nature of the subject/object.
The table below presents the verbs whose membership is influenced by the medium parameter.

VERB
MEDIUM
DIMENSION
MEANING
dart
Air
Land
To move through the air
To move quickly using one’s feet
To fly suddenly and quickly (insects)
To run suddenly
dive
plunge
Air
To move down through air
To move down through air
To move downwards
To move down through air quickly and steeply
To move down through air suddenly a long way
To fall suddenly a long way from a high position
dive
plunge
Water
To move in/down below the surface of a liquid
To cause sb/sth to move in/down below the surface of a liquid
To move head-first down into water
To cause sth to move down into water quickly and violently
sink
Air
Water/
Liquid/
Substance
To move down through air
To move in/down below the surface of a liquid
To move down through air
To move down below the surface of a liquid/ soft substance
glide
Water
Air
Land
To move over liquid
To move through the air
To move smoothly
To move (boat) quietly and smoothly across water
To fly quietly
To move quietly and smoothly in an effortless wayThe verb dart describes sudden movement in air and on land:
(3) He darted across the room.
(4) Bees were darting from one flower to another.
The verbs dive, plunge and sink designate downward movement in air and water:
(5) She plunged into the swimming-pool.
(6) The falcon plunged towards its prey.
Sink, as the general term, denotes movement in a wider variety of contexts:
(7) Helen sank into water/mud/an armchair.
However, we postulate that the verbs dart, dive and sink prototypically describe movement in a given medium: dart is prototypically associated with air, and dive and sink with water. Our claim is supported by the fact that the medium parameter need not be syntactically present:
(8) She dived from the bridge and rescued the drowning child.
(9) The aircraft-carrier, hit by a torpedo, sank at once.
Further, as we will show below, sink has a metaphorical projection onto FEELING, which codifies the metaphor Emotion = Liquid (Goatly 1997):
(10) When he crashed, his heart sank at the thought that he might die.
Finally, glide refers to quiet/smooth movement in a wide range of contexts (water, air, land):
(11) The cruiser glided across the sea.
(12) An owl glided over the fields.
(13) The snake glided towards its prey.
As mentioned above, the domain of MOVEMENT is marked by the semantic parameter of direction, which can determine verb membership. The lexemes jump, vault, leap, hop and spring are subsumed under various subdomains depending on whether they denote forward or upward/downward movement over an obstacle:

VERB
DIRECTION
DIMENSION
MEANING
Jump
Vault
Leap
Hop
Spring

Forwards
To move forwards quickly/suddenly
To move forwards quickly using your legs
To jump onto sth with your hands on it
To jump energetically a long distance
To jump on one foot (sb)/with both feet (birds/small animals)
To jump suddenly
Jump
Vault
Leap
Over sth
To move across/over/
through
To move over sth quickly using your legs
To jump over sth with your hands on it
To jump over sth energetically
Jump
Spring
Hop
Up/Down
To move up/down using one’s feet
To move up/down quickly using one’s feet
To jump suddenly
To jump on one leg(14) Robert jumped one metre/over the fence/out of the shadow.
(15) Carol sprang at him/to her feet.
Finally, as shown below, verb membership can also be determined by the parameter describing the nature of the subject or object.

ARGUMENT
SEMANTIC SCOPE
VERB
DIMENSION
MEANING

Human/
Object

shake
tremble
quiver
To move from side to side/back and forth/up and down repeatedly
To move quickly from side to side/ up and down
To shake un-controllably/ slightly
To shake slightly

Part of the body
shake
tremble
quiver
To move one’s body
To move one’s body quickly from side to side/up and down
To shake un-controllably/slightly
To shake slightly
Subject
Human
Boat
sail
To move towards a place
To move over liquid
To travel to a place by ship
To move (boat) over the sea

Object

rise
fall
To move upwards
To move downwards
To move upwards through air
To move down from a high position/the sky/a tree

Vehicle/
aircraft
plunge
plummet
To move in/downwards below the surface of a liquid
To move downwards through air
To move (vehicle) below the surface of water
To move down through air very quickly

Human
rise
fall
plunge
plummet
To move one’s body by raising it
To move to the ground
To stand up (fml)
To move to the ground from force of weight / loss of balance
To fall suddenly a long way from a high position
To fall very quickly from a high position
Object
Object
swing
lift
raise
bend
To move from side to side/back and forth/up and down repeatedly
To cause stb/sth to move up
To move in a different direction
To move regularly from side to side/back and forth
To cause sb/sth to move up
To lift sth
To turn in a curve/angle

Part of the body
swing
lift
raise
bend
To move a part of one’s body
To move regularly from side to side/back and forth
To move a part of one’s body upwards (esp. head/arm/leg/foot)
To move a part of one’s body upwards
To move a part of one’s body downwardsThe verbs shake, tremble and quiver may be found with a subject argument semantically characterized as human or as concrete. But they can also take an object denoting a part of the body via the metaphor Body part = Human (Goatly 1997):
(16) Mark was so nervous that his knees were shaking.
Sail typically occurs with a subject semantically characterized as boat. Its use with a human agent results from a metonymical process (content for receptacle):
(17) They sailed the Mediterranean.
Rise designates upward movement of both human and concrete entities, but the prototypical argument is human, as shown in the restricted use of rise with human subjects when it describes body movement:
(18) She rose to greet me.
Fall, plunge and plummet, which denote downward movement, may also occur with human and concrete entities:
(19) He fell off the horse.
(20) The vase fell from her hand.
Lastly, the verbs swing, lift, raise and bend take an object semantically marked as object or part of the body:
(21) She lifted her head when I came in.
(22) The suitcase is too heavy for him to lift.
2.3. Metaphorical extension of the lexemes
The verbs creep and escape fall within various subdomains because of their metaphorical extension.

VERB
SUBDOMAIN
MEANING
Creep
To move in a particular way
To move quietly and slowly in order to get to a place without being noticed

To move slowly
To move (light/shadow/mist) very slowly, so that you hardly notice it (lit.)
Escape
To move off/away from a place/thing/person
To leave a place after doing sth illegal

To move out of a place
To move (gas/liquid) out of an object/a containerCreep typically describes a person’s slow movement towards a place and thus falls primarily within the subdomain To move in a particular way, which refers to movement on land. Yet it also belongs to the subdomain To move slowly through a process of personification (Object/Substance=Human), whereby a concrete entity semantically marked as “light/ shadow/ mist” is seen as a human entity. The meaning components speed —“slowly”— and secrecy —“without/hardly being noticed”— are basic to the definition of both verbs.
On the other hand, escape falls in the subdomains To move off/away from a place/ thing/ person and To move out of a place. This double membership obtains from the metaphorization of liquid as a human entity:
(23) Gas is escaping from this hole.
3. Interfield membership of MOVEMENT verbs
We have so far analysed the intrafield membership of a set of MOVEMENT verbs, i.e. their grouping under several subdomains within the semantic domain of MOVEMENT. We will now focus on the verbs’ interfield membership, i.e. their projection onto other semantic fields.
The relations of a semantic domain with others codify metaphorical processes, thus showing that lexical structure is governed by conceptual structure., or, in Sweetser’s words (1990:25), “much of meaning is grounded in speakers’ understanding of the world”. Indeed, each language is equivalent to a particular conceptual system by means of which we interpret our environment, and this conceptual organization is reflected in the lexicon. This means that metaphor is not only a cognitive but also a linguistic phenomenon. Metaphorical processes are encoded in the lexicon and must thus be integrated in a lexical model.
Therefore, the codification of metaphorical processes in the lexicon not only tells us a great deal about how we understand and construct reality but also reflects the internal organization of the lexicon.
Below we sketch the metaphors codified in the domain of MOVEMENT, which establish connections with the semantic fields of COGNITION, SPEECH, CHANGE, FEELING and ACTION.

MET. PROCESS
TYPE METAPHOR
METAPHOR
LEX. EXPRESSION
TARGET DOMAIN
Reification
Concretization
Idea = Object
swing, revolve, stuff
cram, shove
COGNITIONWords = Object
raise, drop, pass
SPEECHIdeas/Words = Cloth
spin, weave
SPEECH

Place/Space
Activity = Place
rush, leave, quit abandon
ACTION

Orientational
Health = Up
fall, sink
CHANGEPitch = Up
rise, raise, sink, lower drop
CHANGEMore = Up
jump, rise, raise, fall sink, plunge, plummet come down, lower drop, sink
CHANGEImportance/Status = Up
rise, climb, come down
CHANGEHappy = Up
fall, sink, lift
FEELINGActivity/Process = Movement forward
push, prod
ACTION
Personification

Emotion = Sense expression
shake, tremble, shiver shudder, quiver
FEELINGIdea = Human
slip, escape
COGNITIONBody part = Human
fall, sink
FEELINGFollowing Goatly (1997), the metaphorization of abstract entities can obtain through a process of reification or personification. Reifying metaphors fall into three categories:
(i) Concretizing metaphors, which codify the representation of abstract entities as objects or cloth/clothes (first row).
(ii) Orientational metaphors, i.e. equations linked to the notion of place/space (second row).
(iii) Metaphors related to the notion of orientation. Abstract concepts such as health, pitch, happiness, amount and rank are seen as entities on a vertical axis (up/down)5.
The last set of equations codify the personification of abstract entities.
Note that some verbs codify several metaphors, e.g. rise, fall, sink, lower. In this regard, we may affirm that the intrafield membership correlates with the interfield double membership.
Movement and change
The projection of MOVEMENT onto CHANGE touches upon verbs denoting an increase or decrease in amount or degree, thus linking MOVEMENT to CHANGE, since the semantic parameters of amount and degree traverse the domain of CHANGE. The connection between both semantic fields obtains from a set of orientational metaphors (cf. above):
(24) He has risen to the position of manager.
(25) Share prices have plunged.
Movement and feeling
MOVEMENT verbs also extend to FEELING. This extension results from the codification of several metaphorical processes:
- the metaphorical representation of a feeling (happiness) on an up/down scale:
(26) Whenever I feel down, Martha lifts my spirits.
(27) Peter’s face fell when I broke the news to him.
- the personification of body parts. This metaphor interacts with the previous one (cf. example above).
- the metaphorical structuring of emotions as sense expressions. The verbs shake, tremble,shiver, shudder and quiver describe body movement as expression of an internal emotional state (anxiety, fear, disgust). This metaphorical process can be explained by the fact that emotions have corresponding physical effects on the experiencer, and these effects have come to represent the emotion that caused them:
(28) He trembled like a leaf at the sight of the tiger.
Movement and cognition
The metaphorical projection of MOVEMENT into COGNITION results from a process of reification or personification of abstract entities. On the one hand, ideas can be metaphorized as objects moving in/into (revolve, penetrate) or out of somebody’s mind (slip, escape):6
(29) The importance of her decision did not penetrate at first.
(30) His surname has slipped my mind.
(31) There is a major point which seems to have escaped you.
To use Halliday’s terminology (1994:117), the last examples are instances of the please-type metaphorical structuring of mental processes. Mental processes can be represented either as like-types or please-types. This means that I like X is equivalent to X pleases me. Then, It has slipped my mind/It has escaped me has the same meaning as I have forgotten it.
Ideas can also be seen as objects which are pushed into someone’s mind:
(32) He stuffed my head full of strange ideas.
Following Reddy (1993), the verbs stuff, cram and shove lexicalize an aspect of the conduit metaphor, which explains the conceptualization of communication as the transfer of thoughts bodily from one person to another.
MOVEMENT AND SPEECH
The verbs raise, drop, pass, spin and weave show the extension of MOVEMENT to SPEECH. Ideas can be communicated like objects being moved: raise (a subject, an objection), drop7 (a hint, remark), pass (a sentence, remark):
(33) You shouldn’t drop hints about promotion to your boss.
Words can also be metaphorically seen as strands of thread that the speaker puts together to produce a coherent message:
(34) The old sea captain sat by the fire spinning yawns.
Movement and action
The connection of MOVEMENT with ACTION is established though the metaphorization of activities as places. Activities can be described as if they were linear motion. It is then possible to move into (rush) or away from an activity (leave, quit, abandon):
(35) They abandoned the game because of the rain.
On the other hand, causing an activity is causing movement forward:
(36) She pushed me into taking the job.
Conclusion
The semantic analysis of the field of MOVEMENT has shown that words are embedded in a set of rich semantic relations. The focalization of a meaning component and the genus of the lexeme account for the extension of a few MOVEMENT verbs to other subdomains within the domain (intrafield extensions). On the other hand, the metaphorical processes encoded in the semantic domain of MOVEMENT account for the projection of many verbs onto other semantic fields (interfield extensions), thus giving proof of the linguistic significance of metaphor.a
Notes
1 This assumption is found in some semantic theories (i.e. prototype semantics).
2 By working upwards from the definitional structure of primary lexemes, Faber and Mairal (1997) have identified eleven semantic domains corresponding to basic conceptual categories: EXISTENCE, MOVEMENT, POSITION, CHANGE, PERCEPTION, FEELING, COGNITION, POSSESSION, SPEECH, SOUND, and GENERAL ACTION.
3 The concept of subdomain is based on Geckelerґs (1971) concept of lexical dimension.
4 See appendix for the configuration of the paradigmatic axis of the semantic domain of MOVEMENT.
5 Lakoff and Johnson’s Experiential Hypothesis (1980: 267-268) postulates that most abstract concepts arise from our preconceptual bodily experiences as infants —like the experience of up and down— by metaphorical projection.
6 Note the conceptualization of the mind as a place. As Romelhart (1993:89) points out: “We use a spatial world to talk about the mind”.
7 This verb codifies the conduit metaphor (cf. above).
8 The verbs in brackets are an example of the type of verbs falling in each subdomain.
Список литературы
Coseriu, Eugenio. 1977. Principios de Semбntica Estructural. Madrid: Gredos.
Dik, Simon C. 1997. Functional Grammar. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
Faber, Pamela and Ricardo Mairal. 1997. “The Paradigmatic and the Syntagmatic Structure of the Semantic Field of EXISTENCE in the Elaboration of a Semantic Macronet”. In Studies in Language 21 (1) (Amsterdam: John Benjamins): 119-154.
---. 1998. “Towards a Semantic Syntax”. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses: 37-64.
---. 1999. Constructing an English Lexicon for Verbs. Berlin: Mouton.
Geckeler, Horst. 1971. Strukturelle Semantik und Wortfeldtheorie. Munich: Fink.
Goatly, Andrew. 1997. The Language of Metaphors. London: Routledge.
Halliday, Mark. A. K. 1994. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.
Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Martнn Mingorance, Leocadio. 1984. “Lexical Fields and Stepwise Lexical Decomposition in a Contrastive English-Spanish Verb Valency Dictionary”. In Hartman, R. R. K. (ed.). LEXeter ’83 Proceedings. Papers from the International Conference on Lexicography at Exeter. Tьbingen: Max Niemeyer: 226-236.
---. 1985a. “La semбntica sintagmбtica del adjetivo. Parбmetros para la organizaciуn de un lexicуn inglйs/ espaсol de valencias adjetivales”. Actas del II Congreso Nacional de la Asociaciуn Espaсola de Lingьнstica Aplicada. Madrid: Sociedad General Espaсola de Librerнa: 329-340.
---. 1985b. “Bases metodolуgicas para un estudio contrastivo del lйxico derivado”. Revista Espaсola de Lingьнstica Aplicada. 1: 37-54.
---. 1987a. “Classematics in a Functional-lexematic Grammar of English”. Actas del X Congreso de la Asociaciуn Espaсola de Estudios Anglo-Norteamericanos. Zaragoza: Publicaciones de la Universidad: 377-382.
---. 1987b. “Semes, Semantics, Classemes, and Dimensions: the Lexicological and Lexicographic Perspectives”. Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Linguists. Berlin: 10-15.
---. 1987c. “Pragmatic Features in the Lexicon of a Functional Grammar”. Proceedings of the International Pragmatics Conference. Antwerp: 17-22.
---. 1990a. “Functional Grammar and Lexematics in Lexicography”. In Tomaszczyk, J. and B. Lewandoska-Tomaszczy. (eds.). Meaning and Lexicography, Amsterdam: John Benjamins: 227-253.
---. 1990b. “Lйxico y sintaxis en la gramбtica funcional de S. C. Dik”. Cuadernos de Investigaciуn Filolуgica. Logroсo: CUL.
Ortony, A. (ed.). Metaphor and Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge U. P.
Reddy, Mark J. 1993. “The Conduit Metaphor”. In Ortony, A. (ed.): 285-324.
Romelhart, David E. 1993. “Some Problems with the Notion of Literal Meanings”. In Ortony, A. (ed.).
Sweetser, Eve. 1990. From Etymology to Pragmatics: Metaphorical and Cultural Aspects of Semantic Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P.

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    РефератыИностранные языки и языкознание

    5.
  • The neologisms and their word building means in Modern English

    The work consists of two main parts. Chapter I gives a description of neologisms: definition, diachronic analysis, cultural acceptance factor. Chapter II deals with manor and major word building types, presents latest top 50 neologisms, analyzed and arranged in table according to their word building type, source and time of appearance, sphere of usage, ability to create new forms, new notion appearance. Both qualitative (semantic, structural, contextual) and quantitative methods of analysis are employed.
    РефератыИностранные языки и языкознание

    6.
  • The main variants of the English language

    It is natural that the English language is not used with uniformity in the British Isles and in Australia, in the USA and -in New Zealand, in Canada and in India, etc. The English language also has some peculiarities in Wales, Scotland, in other parts of the British Isles and America. Is the nature of these varieties the same? Modern linguistics distinguishes territorial variants of a national language and local dialects.
    РефератыИностранные языки и языкознание

    7.
  • Pidgin English как диалект современного английского языка

    Проблема языковых контактов является одной из центральных в современном языкознании. Языки и диалекты живут и развиваются в непрерывном и тесном взаимодействии, которое оказывает влияние на все стороны и уровни взаимодействующих языков. Сложность языковых процессов в том или ином обществе не является отражением внутренней организации какой-то одной однородной системы, но может быть понята в терминах отношений между несколькими.
    РефератыИностранные языки и языкознание

    8.
  • Listening comprehension in English language teaching

    Процес історичного розвитку методів вивчення іноземної мови зумовив зростання ролі усного мовлення як невід’ємного компоненту програми вивчення англійської мови. Сприймаючи усний матеріал, учні підсвідомо засвоюють граматичні структури мови, збагачують словниковий запас, звертають увагу на особливості фонетичної системи мови. Усне мовлення надає можливість взаємодії учасників навчального процесу, внаслідок якої вони впливають один на одного.
    РефератыИностранные языки и языкознание

    9.
  • Intercultural communication of Russian and English languages

    The theme of this course paper presents the problem of interconnection between Russian and English languages. It is obvious that the interconnection of languages can be made within different languages and different time periods. The most important elements in the process of analyzing the reasons of such phenomenon are to find out the spheres of usage of these words and to discover the scientific approaches to the problem of loan-words usage expediency.
    РефератыИностранные языки и языкознание

    10.
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